Nowadays it is impossible to live without electricity. Years ago, having power shortages meant lighting candles to see in the rooms of the apartment and having to be careful not to open the fridge too much to prevent the cold from being dispersed and the food crammed inside could be more easily spoiled. But today things have changed, being without electricity creates many more inconveniences. Without a good electrical system, it is not possible to have the efficiency necessary to start large appliances, such as washing machines and dishwashers, or to use tools that are useful for the work, sociability and homework of young people. Being without electricity means having to give up Wi-Fi, cordless phones (no one has landline phones, no wires) or even laptops and cell phones.
To sum up it is a real tragedy to be disconnected, even if for a short time, from any electrical network.
Having a functioning and safe electrical circuit is important, especially for safety. In the domestic field, fortunately, the power requirements are not comparable to those of an industry with large plants and machinery to operate, but to create it, respecting the rules prescribed by law, it is better to rely on industry experts and not improvise ourselves the little Thomas Edison of our house.
Despite this, it is always better to understand something more to be sure that the electrical system is up to domestic needs and meets the requirements of the many, many tools used by the various members of the family.
The electric switchboard, the beating heart of the electrical system: how many kW?
The domestic switchboard must respond to specific needs. First of all, we need to distinguish the kilowatt (abbreviated with kW) necessary for the dwelling.
The law states that the electricity system of an apartment less than or equal to 75 square meters must have a power of at least 3kW.
Otherwise if the house exceeds this footage, so it has a surface larger than 75sqm, then the power of the electrical switchboard must be at least 6kW. This requirement is independent of the actual use that can be made of them. E.g. an apartment of less than 75sqm consumes only 2kW of energy, the installed switchboard must be able to potentially support the amount of electricity required by law, i.e. 3kW.
Otherwise if the needs of power is higher than the one prescribed by the law, it is still possible to request an increase in the quantity of electricity supplied to the operator.
The switchboard, how is it done?
Generally the electrical switchboard is located near the entrance door of the house. This is the panel from which the flow of delivered energy is managed. It is usually composed of at least one general switch and two circuit breakers, i.e. the differential circuit-breakers that “trip” and interrupt the supplied electricity (it is called differential because it is activated in case of dispersion, i.e. when there is a substantial difference in the load of incoming and outgoing electrical current).
From this part of the electrical system of the house, all the other components that complete it start: points for electrical sockets, magneto thermal switches (avoid overloads and short circuits), simple switches to manage the light points and grounding system.